In 1779, as aide-de-camp to General George Washington, Alexander Hamilton began writing to leading members of the Continental Congress that the credit of the nation was being lost. Hamilton looked to the higher battle which the problem implied, a problem that had doomed all earlier civilizations in Europe and elsewhere. In 1781, he wrote to the leading financier of the Continental Congress, Robert Morris, with a proposal that began a transformation of history: “It is by introducing order to our finances, by restoring public credit, not by winning battles that we are finally to gain our objective. The way the government could secure a permanent paper credit, was to construct a National Bank: It would promote commerce, by furnishing a more extensive medium. A National Bank to increase public and private credit, industry is increased, commodities are multiplied, agriculture and manufactures flourish, and herein consists the true wealth and prosperity of the state. By converting currency produced through loans of the bank, into a real and successful instrument of trade, it would increase the quantity and strength of the currency.”
Robert Morris was convinced, and the Congress chartered the Bank of North America in 1781 the bank’s sole reason and purpose was to facilitate the development of a national economy. Under the U.S. Constitution and Hamiltonian American System, the government has no need of money. It does not need to gather money, nor loan money, but rather, by the power implied in Article 1, Section 8,s clause, to borrow money (in the credit of the United States).It emits bills on the credit of the United States to the Treasury, which can then be turned into whatever purposes, the money can serve for the economy. Then by receiving these bills of credit from the Congress, the Treasury uses the national bank to coordinate the distribution and allocation of this credit, for the nation’s intention. This process creates a sovereign currency, which is a reflection of the nation’s power to act, not something to be speculated upon.
Debt is redefined: A creation by government, through an emission of credit, a sovereign government does not have to go into debt to someone else.
Under those terms the United States, as a sovereign republic, can enter into a treaty agreement, with other counties, and those countries like Australia can enjoy the same advantage of a credit system. (No need for taxation).
Lyndon H. LaRouche. Web cast 18/11/2008. “European Nation’s are not true nation-states, they are controlled by international monetary interests.” Once you give up your sovereignty as a nation, you have no avenue through which to intervene to pursue economic justice. The British Empire is not the British Empire: It’s an international monetary-financial system, which is based in England, but which operates globally. And since the break down of the U.S. dollar, in 1971, and the subsequent launching of the highly speculative market in petroleum, and the short term speculative market in petroleum, the U.S. no longer controls its own dollar. The dollar has been increasingly, as the U.S. economy has deteriorated, been controlled by the London centered crowd, in those financial interests.”
During his presidency, Lincoln defied British Free Trade doctrines and revolutionized the United States economy. Lincoln’s 50% tariff started the American steel industry, while his transcontinental railroads, subsidies for mining, science-educating Agriculture Department, free land for family farmers, free State Colleges, and full scale immigration policy forced the transformation of a
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bankrupt, cotton-exporting country into the world’s greatest industrial powers within 25 years. In a brutal conflict verses the Wall Street firms representing Britain’s Rothschild and Baring banks and the British Crown, Lincoln fought to reassert the national control over credit. He put through anti-usury and other strict federal banking laws, sold bonds directly to the people, and issued hundreds of millions of national currency. He was seeking to crack down on the Anglo-American manipulation of gold when he was assassinated.
John Wilkes Booth shot and mortally wounded President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865 five days after Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army had surrendered in the Civil War. In their biography of him, Lincoln’s two private secretaries, John G. Nicolay and John Hay, brought up the question of Booth, the Confederate Secret Service headquarters in British Canada, and how the murder was financed.
John Wilkes Booth, Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, David E.Herold, Samuel Arnold, Michael O’Laughlin and John Surratt ( a confederate spy and dispatch lander) were all in the Confederate Secret Service which was headed by the Virginia based Confederate Secretary of State, Judah P.Benjamin, who had been born a British subject in the West Indies, and the London based James Bullock, uncle of the later U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt. They coordinated the supply of British rifles and British naval vessels to the Rebellion, and the transfer of gold through the then British colony of Canada. Some months before he shot Lincoln, Booth deposited funds in the Montreal bank used by Benjamin’s operatives. John Surratt, who confessed in 1870 to plotting with Booth to abduct Lincoln, admitted to using the Montreal bank for Secret Service funds. Surratt told of the days preceding the murder, and of his trip to Montreal carrying money and messages from Judah Benjamin. At the Ford’s Theater, where John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln, the U.S. National Park Service now displays a decoding sheet found by police in Booth’s trunk, and a matching coding device found in Judah Benjamin’s Richmond office. Benjamin fled to England immediately following the assassination and became a wealthy Queen’s Attorney. Booth was shot by pursuing U.S .troops, and the other four co-conspirators were hanged.
Editorial, London Times, 1865, “If this mischievous financial policy which had its origin in the North American Republic during the war (1861-1865) should become indurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its money without cost. It will pay off its debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of civilized governments of the World. The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to North America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every Monarchy on the globe.”
James A. Garfield took office in March, 1881, with Abraham Lincoln’s son Robert as War Secretary and James Blaine, chosen as Secretary of State. In May Blaine sent Lincoln’s counterintelligence expert, retired General Stephen Hurlbut, as special envoy to South America. British- sponsored proxy army of Chile had invaded Peru and Bolivia, grabbing control of nitrate deposits, and seeking to crush U.S.-allied nationalism in the region. Britain’s diplomats demanded that Peru surrender and cede its richest provinces. Peru’s Army had collapsed, relying as it did for military supplies on Britain’s Lima-based merchant king, the W.R. Grace Company. Grace controlled virtually all shipping on South America’s Pacific Coast on behalf of British banking and political power. James Blaine told the Congress, “The Chilian government pledged to pay into the Bank of England for the benefit of the English bondholders who put up the job of this war on Peru. It was loot and booty……. The iron-clads that had destroyed the Peruvian Navy were furnished by England. It is an English war on Peru, with Chile as the instrument, and I take responsibility for that assertion.”
Blaine had warned Garfield of the New York machine and it’s allies, within their own Republican Party “This section contains all desperate bad men of the Party, bent on loot and booty, and ready for any Mexican invasion or Caribbean annexation, and looking to, possibly a Spanish war as a legitimate means of continuing political power for a clique. “These men are harmless when out of power, and desperate when in possession of it.” James Blaine, Dec 10th 1880. Charles J. Guiteau shot President
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Garfield on July 2, 1881, four months into his term. Britain’s W. R. Grace, the Peru-based enforcer, moved to the U.S. and was elected Mayor of New York City in 1880. Grace managed Wall Street’s opposition to Blaine’s 1884 presidential bid, and arranged the official 1890 British contract seizing Peru’s land and minerals Banker August Belmont, Rothschild’s representative and long time head of the U.S. Democratic Party with Leonard Jerome, owner of the New York Times were personally close to the Austrian Hapsburgs and helped manage British-Hapsburg subversive projects in Mexico and South America. Leonard Jerome’s daughter Jennie had married Britain’s Randolph Churchill, who in 1880, with his partner Arthur Belfour, launched the new ultra-feudalist group in British politics Disraeli’s “Venetian Party.” Winston was then six years old. Britain’s influence in America had grown ominously in 1879. British bankers, whose Wall Street agents ruled the “desperate” New York political machine, had compelled the resumption of gold payments to foreign holders of U.S. bonds. This gave the Rothschild- Morgan syndicate a blackmail dictator-ship over U.S. finances.
The “McKinley Act” of 1890 was the great protective tariff law of the last generation of American nationalist leaders. Its author, Ohio congressman and former Union military officer William McKinley, said that “ the law of 1890 gave work and wages to all such as they had never had before. It did it by establishing great industries in this country….. It had no friends in Europe.”
McKinley was elected to the presidency in 1896 on a platform of high wages and defiance of British free trade doctrines. McKinley’s first act as President was to push through a law heavily taxing British and other imports, so as “ to preserve the home market to our producers; to revive and increase manufactures; to relieve and encourage agriculture, to aid and develop mining and building; to render labor in every field of useful occupation the liberal wages and adequate rewards to which skill and industry are justly entitled.” In 1882, when McKinley was a Congressman, he identified the British sponsorship of free trade: Who has demanded a tariff for revenue only ? What portion of our citizens? What part of our population? Not the agriculturalist; not the laborer; not the mechanic; not the manufacturer; not a petition before us, to my knowledge asking for an adjustment of tariff rates to a revenue basis.” England wants it, demands it—not for our good, but for hers; for she is more anxious to maintain her old position of supremacy than she is to promote the interests and welfare of the people of this republic. Free trade may be suitable to Great Britain and it’s peculiar social and political structure, but it has no place in this republic, where classes are unknown and where equality is a rule; where labor is dignified and honorable; where education and improvement are the individual striving of every citizen, no matter what may be the accident of his birth, or the poverty of his early surroundings. Under such conditions, free trade can have no abiding place here.”
President William McKinley an opponent of British free trade he was assassinated 1901, by anarchist assassin Leon Czolgosz he told police after his capture that he was disciple of Emma Goldman’s, and had heard her lecture on the destruction of government two weeks before he killed the President. Emma Goldman and the anarchists were sponsored in high style America and in England. New York’s Henry Street Settlement House was built in 1893 by Wall Street’s Jacob Schiff, in co-operation with his partner Sir Ernst Cassell, a personal banker to the British Royal Family and to the Fabian Society.
Winston Churchill—“From the days of Spartacus, Weishophf, Karl Marx, Trotsky, Belacoon, Rosa Luxenburg and Emma Goldman, this world conspiracy has been steadily growing. This conspiracy played a definite recognizable role in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the 19th century. And now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America, have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become the undisputed masters of that enormous Empire.”

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