The History of the American Federal Reserve Bank.

 

1          Rothschild Banks of London and Berlin

2          Lazard Brothers Banks of Paris

3          Israel Moses Seif Banks of Italy

4          Warburg Bank of Hamburg and Amsterdam

5          Kuhn, Leob Bank of New York

6          Chase Manhattan Bank of New York

7          Goldman, Sachs Bank of New York

These Banks are the private corporation known as the Federal Reserve Banks of America. They own and control Americas' Monetary System, as well as Americas' Currency System. To understand how these Banks gained control of Americas' money system you have to go back to the mid 1700's.

In the mid 1700's the colonies were prospering because they were issuing their own money, called colonial script, which was strictly regulated and didn't require the payment of any interest, when the Bankers of Great Britain heard this, the British Parliament passed a law prohibiting the currency, forcing them to accept the debt money issued by them. Contrary to what history teaches, the American Revolution was not started by a tax on tea.

Benjamin Franklin said, "The conditions were so reversed that the era of prosperity ended. The colonies would gladly have bourne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction, which caused the colonies hatred of England and the Revolutionary war”

In 1781, Alexander Hamilton established the Bank of North America which was similar to the Bank of England at the time America had a debt of $12,000 in borrowed money from Spain, France, Holland and private interest in Germany and a domestic debt of $42,000. In 1790, Hamilton urged congress for a central banking system, a privately owned company to have sole responsibility of issuing money in order to handle the Country's financial situation.

It would be used to deposit Government funds and tax collections, and issue bank notes to increase the money supply needed to finance the Country's growth. This bank of the United States would have a capital stock plan of $10 million, with 4/ 5's to be owned by private investors and 1/5 by US Government. It would be administered by a President and 25 Board of Directors with 20 to be elected by the stockholders and 5 appointed by the Government.

Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (who would both become Presidents) opposed the bill but George Washington signed it into law on February 25 1791. Alexander Hamilton and Aaron burr helped establish the Manhattan Co in New York City, which developed into a prosperous banking institution. It would later be controlled by the Warburg­ - Kuhn - Leob interests and in 1955 it merged with Rockefeller's Chase Bank to create Chase Manhattan Bank.

When Thomas Jefferson became President he opposed the Bank as being unconstitutional and when the 20 year charter came up for renewal in 1811 it was denied. Nathan Rothschild, head of the family Bank in England recognized America's potential and made loans to a few states and in fact became of official European Banker for the US Government. He supported the Bank of the United States, he threaten "Either the application for the renewal of the charter is granted, or the United States will find itself in a most disastrous war" He then ordered the British troops to "teach these impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to colonial status." This brought the war of 1812, the second war with England, which facilitated the re-chartering of the Bank of the United States and raised the National debt of America from $45 million to $127 million. In 1816, Jefferson wrote to John Tyler who became the 10th president "If the American people ever allow private Banks to control the issuance of their currency, first by inflation and then by deflation, the Banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on a continent their fathers’ conquered. I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. The issuing power should be taken away from the Banks and restored to the Government to whom it properly belongs."

On the 10th of May 1816, President James Madison signed a bill, which created the second Bank of the United States. A new charter allowed it to operate for another twenty years and raised its capital stock to 35 million authorized, the creation of Bank branches and the issuing of notes in denominations no smaller than $5.00. The new Bank now had the power to control the entire fiscal structure of the Country. In 1819, the Bank was declared constitutional by Supreme Court justice John Marshall. In 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed the charter of the Bank and abolished it he ordered the Secretary of the Treasury to remove all Government deposits from the US Banks and deposit them in the State Banks. On January 8th 1835, Jackson paid off the final installment on the US National Debt for the first time in Americas' history. It accumulated a surplus of 35 million which was distributed amongst the States. Jackson became the first President of the United States to be censured in March 1834 for removing the Governments deposits from the Bank of the United States without the express authorization of the United States congress the censure was later reversed by the senate in 1837. In 1841, President John Tyler vetoed two Bills which would have recharted the Bank of the United States.

In 1837, August Belmont (real name August Schon Berg) a Rothschild's' agent, came to America from Frankfurt, Germany and later became a financial advisor to the President In 1857, the Illuminati group met in England to decide Americas' fate they had to create an incident that would allow the establishment of a central bank. This meant a war and since wars are expensive and Governments have to borrow to pay for them by formenting a conflict between North and South. The north was to become a British Colony annexed to Canada and controlled by Lionel Rothschild while the south was to be given to Napoleon lll of France and controlled by James Rothschild.

In 1854, George W.L Bickley formed the knights of the Golden Circle. In 1867, the Ku Klux Klan was formed to be the military arm of knights. The states which seceded would unite into the confederate states of America which meant that if the south won each state it would be like an Independent Country. Rothschild's financed the North through emissaries August Belmont and Jay Cooke who were commissioned to sell union bond issues in Europe through _ and W Seligman and company and Speyer & Co. Judah Benjamin 1811-84 of the law firm of Slidell, Benjamin and Conrad in Louisiana, was a Rothschild's' agent, who later became Secretary of state for the confederacy in 1862. His law partner, John Slidell (August Belmont's' wife's Uncle) was the Confederate envoy to France.

Slidell's daughter was married to Baron Frederick D'Erlanger, in Frankfurt, who was related to the Rothschild's and acted on their behalf. Slidell was the representative of the South who borrowed money from the D'Erlangers to finance the Confederacy and on September 8th 1863, at the request of President Abraham Lincoln and secretary of state William. H. Seward. Czar Alexander ll of Russia sent the Russian Fleet to San Francis and New York and ordered them "to be ready to fight any power and to take their orders only from Abraham Lincoln." Thus ending the civil war Lincoln said, "The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but the government’s greatest creative opportunity." In March, 1863 Lincoln received congressional approval to borrow $450 million from the people by selling them bonds, or "green backs" to pay for the civil war they were not redeemable until 1865, when three could be exchanged for one in silver. They were made full legal tender in 1879. Lincoln solved Americas' monetary crisis without the help of International Bankers. The Government furnished its own money without cost and payed off its debts.

On April 14th 1865, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated that same evening an unsuccessful attempt on the life of William H Seward was also made and in 1881. The Czar Alexander 11 of Russia was assassinated by an exploding bomb. James A. Garfield the 20th president of the United States said "Whoever controls the money of a nation, controls that nation." He was assassinated in 1881, during the first year of his presidency.

In 1877, in Lampasas County, Texas, a group of farmers formed a group called the knights of reliance, who were concerned that financial power was being concentrated into the hands of a few. They were later renamed the Farmers Alliance which spread with 120 chapters throughout Texas and in 1887 the movement had spread from the Dakotas to the Carolinas. They were impressed with Lincolns' Green backs because of its ability to adapt in order to meet the credit needs of the economy. They wanted the money supply to be controlled by their elected representatives and not the money interests of Wall Street Bankers.

Paul Moritz Warburg 1868 -1932 and-his brother Felix’ 1821 - 1937 immigrated to the United States in 1902 from Frankfurt, Germany. Buying into the partnership of Kuhn, Leob and Co. with the financial backing of the Rothschild's. They had been trained at the family banking house M.M. Warburg 1838-1910 a Rothschild-allied bank in Frankfurt, Hamburg and Amsterdam which was founded in 1798 by their great grand father Paul Warburg.

Their brother Max 1867-1946 was the chief of Intelligence in Germanys' Secret Service and ran the Hamburg bank. In 1938, Hitler changed the Banks' name to Brinckmann Wirtz and Co. After World War ll, a cousin, Eric Warburg returned to head it and in1970 its name was changed to M. M. Warburg, Brinckmann, Wirtz & Co. Sigmund Warburg, Eric's brother, established the banking firm of S.G Warburg & Co. in London and in 1956 it had taken over the Seligman Brothers Bank. By the start of World Wax l, Paul Warburg's firm of Kuhn, Leob and Co. had five representatives on the U.S. Treasury Department and was in charge of Liberty Loans, which helped finance World War l for the United States, his brother Max helped finance Germany through M.M Warburg and Co.

In 1886, Paul Warburg graduated from the University of Hamburg. He had studied central banking methods in England and France, which he was considered to be the worlds' foremost authority on central Banking and in 1903 produced a paper on the European Central Banking system to be used as a plan for Americas' monetary system. On January 6th 1907, the New York Times published an article by Paul Warburg called "Defects and needs of our Banking system," after which he became the leading exponent of monetary reform, Later that same year, Jacob Schiff told the New York Chamber of Commerce that "unless we have a Central Bank with adequate control of credit resources this Country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in history." The House of Morgan initiated financial panics in 1873, 1884, 1893, 1907 and later in 1920. In 1907 by circulating rumors that the knickerbockers bank of America and Trust Co. was going broke created runs on banks and financial crisis. In 1908, Senator Nelson W Aldrich father in-law of John D Rockefeller Jr. and grandfather of Nelson and David Rockefeller proposed a bill in which the banks in emergency situations would issue currency backed by federal state and local government bonds and railway bonds which would be equal to 75% of the cash value of the bonds it was criticized because it didn't allow a monetary system that would respond to seasonal demand and fluctuate with the volume of trade, In the House of Representatives Rep E B Vreeland of New York proposed the Vreeland Bill it called for the acceptance of asset currency, but not only in cases of emergency and the currency would be based on commercial paper rather than bonds it passed the house 184 -145. The Aldrich- Vreeland Bill, called the Emergency Currency Act was made law on May 30th 1908 and led to the creation of the National Monetary Commission which - formed the legislative base for the Federal Reserve Act.

In 1910 Paul Warburg gave a speech entitled "A United Reserve Bank of the United States", which called for a Reserve Bank to be located in Washington D.C. having capital of 100 million with 20 districts. Warburg said "that the U.S. Monetary system wasn't flexible and it was unable to compensate for the rise and fall of Business demand. As an example he said that when wheat was harvested and merchants didn't have the cash on hand to buy and store a large supply of grain, the farmers would sell the grain for whatever they could get. This would cause the price of wheat to greatly fluctuate, forcing the farmer to take a loss. Warburg called for the development of commercial paper (paper money) to circulate as currency, which would be issued in standard denominations of uniformed sizes. They would be declared by law to be legal tender for payment of debts and taxes. On November 22nd 1910, Senator Nelson Aldrich called a meeting of the Banking establishment and members of the National Monetary Commission to an Island resort off the coast of Georgia known as Jekyll Island. It was purchased in 1888 by J.P Morgan, Henry Goodyear, Joseph Pulitzer, Edward and George Gould, Cyrus McCormack, William Rockefeller, William K. Vanderbilt and George F. Baker who founded the Harvard Business School.

Those present at this meeting included Sen Aldrich, Frank A Vanderlip Vice President of the Rockefeller owned National city Bank, Henry P Davison of J P Morgan and Co. Abraham Piatt Andrew (Assistant Secretary of the Treasury and Assistant Professor at Harvard and Special Assistant to the National Monetary Commission during their European tour) Paul Moritz Warburg (Kuhn, Loeb and Co.) Benjamin Strong (Vice president of Morgan's' Bankers Trust Co.) Eugene Meyer (a former partner of Bernard Baruch and the son of a partner in the Rothschild's owned Lazard Freres, who was head of the war Finances Corporations and later gained control of the Washington Post) J. P Morgan, John D Rockefeller, Col House, Jacob Schiff, Herbert Lehman (of Lehman Brothers) Bernard Barach (appointed by president Wilson to be the Chairman of the War Industries Board which gave him control of all domestic contracts for Allied war materials while working for the government) Joseph Seligman who founded J & W Seligman and Co., who had helped to float bonds during the civil war and were known as 'World Bankers' then later declined to serve as President's Grants Secretary of treasury and Charles D Norton, President of the First National Bank of New York. It was said at the time of this meeting that the owners of this Island and the men present represented 1/6 of the worlds' wealth in the hands of no more than a dozen men.

On June 23rd 1913, President Woodrow Wilson addressed the 63rd congress of the United States on the subject of the Federal Reserve threatening to keep them in session until they passed it. Democratic Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan apposed the bill. Then on the 26th of June 1913, the Glass Bill (HR7837) was introduced in the House of Representatives and was referred back to the Senate. It came back as the Glass - Owen Bill and on the 23rd of December 1913, two days before Christmas when some senators and many congressman where on their way home for Christmas the Bill was sent to the House of Representatives where it was passed 298­ - 60 then sent to the Senate where it passed with a vote 43 - 25 (with 27 absent or abstaining.)

With in one hour of the vote, President Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law. Congressman William Jennings Bryan would late write, "That is the one thing in my public career that I regret my work to secure the enactment of the Federal Reserve Law. I never thought that the Federal Bank system would prove such a failure. The Country is in a state of irretrievable bankruptcy." The Banking act of 1935 amended the Federal Reserve Act, changing its name to the Federal Reserve System. Today, there are 12 Federal Reserve Banks in twelve districts such as Boston (MA,) Cleveland (OH,) New York (NY,) Philadelphia (PA,) Richmond (VA,) Atlanta (GA,) Chicago(IL,) St Louis (MO,) Minneapolis (MN,) Kansas City (KS,) San Francisco (CA) and Dallas (TX.)

In 1914, Benjamin Strong became the first Chairman of the Board of the Federal Reserve Bank and Paul M Warburg left his position at Kuhn, Loeb and Co to be on the board later resigning in 1918 because of his German connections namely his brother Max (1867- 1946) a major financier of the Russian Revolution who in his role as Chief of Intelligence in Germany's Secret Service, helped Lenin cross over from Germany to Russia in what has now become known as "The Sealed Train."

Three years after the creation of the Federal Reserve, Woodrow Wilson said, "The Growth of the nation and all our activities are in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the most ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the civilized world; no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the free vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men."

On June 10th 1932, Rep Louis T McFadden who had served for more than ten years as Chairman of the Banking and Currency Committee in the House of Representatives said in an address to congress, "We have in this Country, one of the most corrupt institutions the world have ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks. Some people think that the Federal Reserve Banks are United States Government institutions. They are not Government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers. The Federal Reserve Banks are the Agents of the foreign central banks, in that dark crew of financial pirates, there are those that would cut a man's throat to get a dollar out of his pocket. Every effort has been made by the Federal Reserve Board to conceal its power, but the truth is the FED has usurped the Government. It controls everything here (in Congress) and controls all our foreign relations. It makes and breaks governments at will. When the FED was passed, the people of the United States did not perceive that a world system was being set up here. A super state controlled by international bankers and international industrialists acting together to enslave the world for their own pleasure!" Louis T McFadden 1932.

On May 23rd 1933, Mc Fadden brought impeachment charges against the members of the Federal Reserve.

"Where as I charge them jointly and severally with having brought about a repudiation of the National Currency of the United States in order that the gold value of the said currency might be given to private interests. I charge them with having arbitrarily and unlawfully taken over $80,000,000,000 from the United States Government in the year 1928. I charge them with having arbitrarily and unlawfully raised and lowered rates on money increased and diminished the volume of currency in circulation for the benefit of private interest. I charge them with having brought about the decline of prices on the New York Stock Exchange. I charge them with having conspired to transfer to foreigners and International money lenders, title to and control of the financial resources of the United States. I charge them with having published false and misleading propaganda intended to deceive the American people and to cause the United States to lose its independence. I charge them with the crime of having treasonably conspired and acted against the peace and security of the United States and having treasonably conspired to destroy the constitutional government of the United States." Senator Barry Gold-water wrote in his book (With no Apologies.) Does it not seem strange to you that these men just happen to be the Council for Foreign Relations; and just happen to be on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, that absolutely controls the money and the interest rates of this Country and a privately owned organization which has absolutely nothing to do with the United States of America.

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York and other Banks are listed in Dun and Brad street reference book of "America Business (North East/ Region 1/ Manhattan/ Bronx.) According to Article 1, section 8 of the U.S Constitution, only congress has the right to issue money and regulate its valve. According to the U.S National Debt Clock 23/06/06 an estimated 298,962,495 Americans owe $8,394,496,253,239.19 trillion and the national debt of the United States has continued to rise on average $1.74 billion per day since September 30th 2005. This is not a debt clock ticking, it is a debt time bomb ticking and it will reverberate around the World in the not to distant future.

 

Abraham Lincoln  1860

“The government should create . issue and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the government and the buying power of consumers. The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of the government , but it is the government’s greatest creative opportunity . The financing of all public enterprise and the conduct of the treasury will become matters of practical administration. By the adoption of these principals the tax payers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be the master and become the servant of humanity.”

 

                                                                                                              Jeff Davy

 

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